Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Middle school & end of year reflection

After a year of trying to establish rapport with middle school I think the obvious is as follows:
Without teaching upper school classes and being involved with NCOS, middle school teachers have disconnected from upper school requirements through no fault of their own.

Added to the traditional "it's an issue at primary level - but we have five years to rectify it" we also now have "it's an issue with middle school, how can we possibly fix it in two years".

Students wrapped in cotton wool, unable to connect success with working hard find senior school difficult.

Assessment changes and alteration to pedagogical methodology in middle school has reduced the rigor required for TEE subjects especially in those with little discipline at home.

Without a detailed syllabus, critical topics can be deferred to later years causing irreparable damage.

Responsibility for subject performance should be left in the hands of those that understand the subject area.

Graduation should not be automatic. Pastoral needs of the individual should not be placed above the academic needs of the student and group as a whole.

Students can be entertained and placed with friends to stay in school but when once the demands of TEE level education arrives, it gives students too little time to adjust to the requirements of real study. The adjustment needs to occur in year nine - especially for the gifted kids.

General observations from 2008:
Streaming in mathematics is required where more than four levels exist across a cohort.

Intervention time is limited to less than 1 minute per student in homogeneous classes greater than thirty and puts teachers at risk with the current defer intervention actions BMIS discipline policy. Intervention time is greatly increased in a streamed class as peer assistance, direct instruction and modelled lessons become more effective.

Collaborative lessons can work when consequences for non-performance are correctly administered (peer pressure is a fantastic tool in this case).

The most reward comes from success with students with the least demonstrated ability.

Any student (without a learning difficulty) can learn any topic given an adequate amount of time (Kevin Casey).

Male students are not getting the results in mathematics in line with their ability levels.

It is possible to make a difference. Bring on 2009.

Intuitive Teachers

I wonder if there is a connection between those that deal with a lot of people and their ability to be intuitive towards their needs. As teachers we need to be able to "read" students as many times their articulated response may not reflect their needs.

I've found that since teaching it is easier to read what people mean compared to what they say. Is this a common finding? Do occupations that deal with a lot of people on an ongoing basis develop the same ability? Does frequency of interaction hone the ability further? Is this a trait we should be looking for in new teachers in the same way we look for bedside manner in doctors?

Monday, December 29, 2008

Making schools a part of the social system

Many attribute social behaviours to treatment within schools.

Children under the age of 18 are arbitrarily required to attend school or seek gainful employment. Yet many of the children in our justice system are no longer attending school or seeking gainful employment.

Similarly, many children in schools are not students, but young adults actively being impediments to the learning of other students. They have little or no interest in schooling and have no interest in seeking gainful employment.

If students have no interest in schooling or are not in gainful employment I suggest that we strip them of their rights as children and call them adults... any illegal activities get tried as adults, protections given to children are removed and sentences roll into the adult system as they turn age. After all not in school, not acting like a child, demanding adult responsibility and treatment - grant their wish.

Similarly if a child is not contributing in school, not valuing their education, being an impediment to the learning of others (with no feasible solution available to get the child performing as a student) .. whoosh - out they go either into an alternate programme off campus or into the real world as an adult and lose their privileges as a child.

With one proviso - any government payments for children are instantly stripped if they stop attending school and adult payments for these children are not available until they turn 21 if school is not finished (a very simple process that could be completely handled electronically). Exceptions would be handled on a case by case basis with very strict criteria after testing for learning disabilities and available environmental supports.

Whoa! I hear you say.. that's a bit radical... but nobody values what is given on a plate - only when there is a risk of loss is it valued. For schools to be a part of the social system, it needs to be recognised that schools cannot be held account for all social ills, they can though be a filter for recognising them and helping the borderline cases back into the mainstream. Stuffing extreme cases into an already taxed system and hoping all will be ok runs the risk of dragging many more real students down with it. Schools should be centres of learning filled with students and families that value education... not a young adult minding service.

Friday, December 19, 2008

Keeping it real

I suppose it's not the catch phrase it once was, but students like you keeping it real. When you speak to them they like to know your opinion, what you think and what you are doing outside of school. Much of the time we are frozen by protocol and have to keep professional distance but sometimes it is a good idea to let them see some of your opinion.

Case in point, an A student taking a traineeship - no apparent reason for doing so other than she "hates" school. She's one of the few that actually smile now and again. Rather than telling her - look you're on the hump, hang in there, the PC response is "you need to do what you think is best" or "evaluate your options and see where it takes you". BS, stay in school or you'll join the 10% without an education you bloody dill!

After all it's sooo much better to tell a kid they're doing well, feed them success and then let them find out that they are unable to pursue their chosen occupation because they've been a lazy blob. Teenagers are moody, emotional, need to fire up from time to time, will do at little as possible to get by, have little vision of the future past 5 minutes from now but they're also fairly resilient and need a dose of failure from time to time to ensure that they get back on the right track.

Keeping it real is about helping them see the bigger picture and find school an enabling influence on their lives rather than a drag. Our summer school for high ability yr 10 maths students entering year 11 is about connecting students with the real world. We improve their minds, feed them motivating experiences and they see that public and private companies are willing to support our efforts through a certificate where the school logo is not front and centre. Many thanks to the companies that are supporting our little event. More importantly - there is no cash prize for attending, no sponsorship money, no reward other than self improvement. What a fabulous lesson for these kids to learn and appreciate at 15 years old.

Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Lost hope

Two years ago I spoke to one of my colleagues whilst I was teaching at another school. He spoke of the amazing progress his students were making. It was a deciding factor in moving to his school later that year.

Moving to a government school was something that I had contemplated but after a woeful experience trying to enter the system, I had not anticipated trying again until I had more experience to offer. Once I was given an opportunity and a taste of it, I didn't look back.

The feeling that I have received from others in the government system though (whilst on PD or in the community) is that of lost hope. If I hear one more teacher saying "we haven't the clientele to do it" or "we are going to do the course through SIDE (via remote access) because we lack numbers" I'll jam a pick axe under their fingernails.

Can I make something very clear - in some schools, teachers have had to work very hard to get students to a high standard. Students in low socio-economic areas typically have the ability but lack environmental support. Students are nurtured into performing well above their weight level. I suppose, coming through a low socio-economic system I remember what teachers did for me, without some of them taking a personal interest I would have slipped through the cracks.

In high performing schools (the "leafy greens"), teachers have to work very hard to get students to perform to a high level - public or private. If they don't succeed, parents complain and they get turfed out or nerfed to a lesser course. If we get complacent in challenging students within public schools and let excuses get in the way of trying and not do at least as much as private schools... then these kids have little hope. That means the before/after school classes, the extension work, the calls home, extra homework, the lecture for poor performance, doing corrections, study skills, ensuring test preparation is done and fostering of an academic environment is not optional in our schools. Who pays for the extra work is a different issue. I leave that to academics, advocates and DET.

Parity between public and private needs to be found or public schooling will become more of a sub-par alternative. I don't know many teachers that would send their child to a government school (behaviour not academic standards is the most common reason given) and that is a sad inditement on the system. We need to recognise this as an indicator and institute change.

I hope we have achieved something special this year in our academic programme and in 2009 we hope to be able to demonstrate our model as an example of what can be done. Something needed to be done to rescue our TEE programme (DET teachers are getting worn down by the fight). We could have become another school without a TEE programme.


2000 hits since July (started site 22 July)
600 individual people visiting for the quarter
500 hits in a month (November)
120 individuals in a week, 180 hits (week 46)

From the little map it's good to see people from all over the place... Hello!!!

Most visited pages
CAS Calculator help index (by far)
Mathematics pathways 2009

On an excursion today.. probably the last post until the new year. Soo... from Benjamin bunny and educationWA have a very Merry Christmas and I'll see you in 2009!!

Monday, December 15, 2008

Relief Classes

In the last weeks of term, senior school teachers tend to do a lot of relief. I don't actually mind doing a little relief as it is a chance to meet students in the lower school.

What gets my goat is when I am asked to come down to senior school and I'm not needed. If I am needed to teach, great, give me a class and a lesson and away I will go.

Ask me to come down when all you want me to do is be present in the room while a teacher runs a general knowledge quiz and watch my blood boil. We had a team leader, team assistant and two teachers in the room and a quiz running with about sixty kids. If you can't run that without extra help split them into three classes of twenty and do it. Put the team assistant with the most difficult class.

I have work to do people!

You are saying to the senior school teacher, "my need for behaviour management assistance is more precious than your preparation time for 2009". I know the general belief is that because senior school teachers have fewer classes in term 4 then they should be available to assist in lower school tasks and I agree with this, but the best use of their time is not as babysitters, use their expertise to improve curriculum.

Don't think because you see them more often in the staff room it's because they have nothing to do - they may just be getting a breather after working on the course for a couple of hours. Creating new material in preparation for new year 12 courses is difficult.

Don't underestimate their need to prepare for the following year - the pressure is on for performance as the public image of the school rides of school league tables (for better or worse). Today I was writing outlines for 2009 3A courses and preparing materials for the summer school we are running for year 11 level 3 students. This would have been a far better use of my time.


Saturday, December 13, 2008

Last two weeks of school

When I was a lad, the last day of school was a day for cleaning the place up. After 12 pm we started cleaning and after cleaning was complete we had a goodbye party last period on the floor with the desks and chairs piled up at the back. Until then, we completed classwork.

Today, this does not happen. During term students drift out of school thinking that taking a week out here and there is ok, that it is their right to have personal tuition to catch up when they return and that teachers must prepare material for them (that will not be done) whilst they are on holidays.

My favourite thing now is to ask students that have been absent (even for a day) if they have found a friend and caught up during form class (form is usually 20 mins of dolittle time each day where students rock up 2 seconds before the bell and get their names ticked off whilst talking through the notices). If they haven't caught up, I direct them to get their notes complete and until they have I help others first that have done the right thing (..after all once students have made an attempt to catch up they probably won't need the help).

Programmes seem to wrap up in week 8 term 4, as reports and all assessment have to be in. Student absenteeism starts to increase by week nine as students get sick of watching videos. Fun days start to appear to keep students busy. By week 10 absenteeism is at an all time high.

Students get roped into tasks to help get things done around the school. The sad fact is that it is usually the reliable kids that have the most to lose. They get taken out of class and valuable learning time is lost not to mention the disruption of reteaching when they return.

Unfortunately all of these things also occur in week 10 of every other term. That means we potentially lose 5 weeks out of 40 for the year to these cool down periods. Couple this to ramp up time, assemblies, exams, excursions, PD days and public holidays we can easily lose another 3 weeks. That means a clear 20% of programme time is lost over the year.

Teachers that run their programmes through to week 10 are put under pressure to stop by students (and teachers) as their class is the only one doing any work and it is not fair.

Last year in year 9, I had my practice of getting kids to work to the end of term questioned and I caved in and stopped the programme on the last day. This year for my year 10 class I was not so kind. Any of my kids that were being roped into alternate activities were found and returned to class. They worked until their last period practising trinomial factorisation... And do you know what.. they seemed to respect that their programme of learning was being protected. I don't get to see them until the last day next week (one period lost to a school assembly, one to a whole of school fun day, one to finishing on a Thursday), effectively making it a nine week term and that too needs looking at.

I can't complain about student knowledge if I'm not willing to do anything about it. This is an area that can be improved especially for my high ability students.

Monday, December 8, 2008

Exam review

We were reviewing the exam results and I pointed out to students the importance of exams and a different way of looking at the whole process.

Before the exam
  • Use class time effectively
    There is no substitute for working well in class if you want good results. If you know the content, have practiced hard, retention is higher and understanding deeper. Muck about and the consequences follow.
  • Identify content
    It is important to try and identify content that may be in the exam. Check notes and chapters covered and have a good look at material at the end of chapters.
  • Identify proficiencies
    Do a few questions from the end of each chapter and see how well you understand the content. The more you are able to do, the better your exam results.
  • Make good notes
    Any areas that you need to refer to the book make notes of. Where notes are not allowed in the exam, use them as quick review to memorise key material in the days leading up to the exam. Where notes are allowed, to not have them is a recipe for disaster.
  • Find a study buddy
    Check what others are finding hard and things they think might be in the exam. They may have picked up on a hint that you haven't.
  • Ask the teacher for more information
    Ask the teacher stuff. Who knows what they might give away? You have nothing to lose.
  • Quarantine impossible material
    Some stuff you just can't learn in time. If this is the case focus on what you do know or can learn before the test.
  • Sleep well
    You can't expect to retain anything without sleep. Your anxiety levels will rise to the point where you will be unable to function. Little anxiety good. Lots of anxiety bad.

On the day of the exam

  • Be prepared
    Nothing is more likely to unhinge your confidence than losing your notes, calculator, pens running out, no ruler.
  • Focus
    Find that point of calm within yourself. Don't Panic. Grab your notes (regardless of whether you can use them inside or not) and review what you know. I find it easier to go sit on my own than sit with friends that may hype you up.
  • Wear comfortable clothes
    If that means you need to wash your most comfortable trousers or skirt the night before, find that shirt that is just the right size, make sure you have on your favourite socks (as long as you are still in uniform) then do it the night before.
  • Be punctual
    Be prompt. Having the examiner yell at you for being late is not a good way to get into an exam frame of mind.

In the exam

  • Seating
    Listen to the examiner and find a nice quiet place to sit. Settle your material just where you want it. Make sure that you only have material out that you need for the exam
  • Remember your exam technique
    Spend two minutes reading the paper before starting. Identify the hard questions so that you mind can start working on them in the background - allow yourself multiple 'aha' moments as the answers come to mind. Find the easy questions. Number them. Start from the easiest and work to the hardest. Make sure you get all the marks you can before you start the doubtful ones. Identify how many minutes per question and how far you need to be at different times to complete the exam.
After the exam
  • Reflect
    It is important to reflect (I didn't say beat yourself up) on how you did, identify your strengths and weaknesses and then use this knowledge for indicators how and when to really concentrate in class. It will help you at that moment of "Please shut up so I can listen to what the teacher is saying" as you will know when you need to listen and ignore the friend with that bit of gossip about the weekend. There's a reason some some students can ask good questions and others always ask questions that are irrelevant. Reflection is a key area of development for many students.
  • Natural Ability vs Good work ethic
    We have all seen the students that coast along until year 11 and then hit the wall. These students are not prepared for failure and typically fall apart blaming all and sundry. A good work ethic is necessary for success in academia and in the work force.

Despite what many may say, good students do these things and somewhere along the line someone has taught them.

Sometimes unfortunately it ends up being me in year 10.

Links to other articles on exams:

Another week 8 gone

Well, with the help of a few friends I have made it through another week 8. True to form it is coupled with a bit of tiredness but was managed well by those around me.

I suppose in week 8 especially in term 4 we all suffer a little doubt. Have we done enough? Are they ready for next year? I suppose only time will tell.

I know that we're at least achieving in little things. There's a programme of work in place, resources have been gathered and evaluated, there are changes in assessment policy, we have established some diagnostics for cohorts. The team is coming together and is expressing interest in meetings next year. People are starting to see that these gatherings (I hate to call them meetings as it has that connotation of useless waste of time) as something useful and needed to make that whole of school approach work.

It's been a horrible year in terms of individual events happening to kids and of things happening here at home. Let's hope that next year, with the new baby arriving things change for the better (although I don't know how I will manage with fewer hours of sleep). It's good to know that even with a little trouble going on outside of school, things held together in school.

It's getting to the end of the cycle, time to close off this year and start preparing for next year. Another year, another new course, more new kids. Next stop material for summer school and then into the school year. I think we'll concentrate at the summer school on linear algebra, quadratics, problem solving/investigations, probability and 'other stuff' on the last day.

Soon I'll be in my third year of teaching.


Tuesday, December 2, 2008

Mathematics Pathways 2009

On paper the new courses next year look to be improvements on the existing 2008 MIPS/Foundations/Intro Calculus/G&T combinations. In 2008 MIPS was for weaker students, Foundations for mid tier students and Intro Calculus/G&T was for the capable students (think Maths 2/3 if you're from my era). In Year 12 MIPS lead to Modelling, Foundations lead to Discrete, Intro Calculus/G&T lead to Calculus/Applicable mathematics.

There were definite issues with the old structure. First MIPS was very language oriented which caused serious difficulties for low literacy students. The Foundations course was more difficult than the year 12 Discrete Mathematics course that it lead to. Many capable students opted to take the easier option (Foundations/Discrete) rather than Intro Calculus/G&T students as the scaling was never quite right for(although Intro Calculus/G&T students did get the benefit of satisfying many pre-requisites in university and avoided bridging courses)

The new courses for 2009 on paper better cater to a range of students. These courses are semesterised and labelled 1B-3D (eg. 2C in semester 1 and 2D in semester 2 year 11, and 3A in semester 1, 3B in semester 2 year 12). Each year 11 course (if necessary) can be sat again in year 12 (eg. if a student failed 2c/2D in year 11 and repeated 2C/2D in year 12). There are lower courses aimed at students with learning difficulties (PA/PB/1A).

Weaker students have a more traditional year 9/10 type course in 1B/1C/1D/1E or 1D/1E/2A/2B (replacing MIPS/Modelling)
Weak mid tier students now have 2A/2B/2C/2D (replacing Foundations/Discrete)
Strong mid tier type students now have 2C/2D/3A/3B (replacing Foundations/Discrete)
Capable students have 3A/3B/3C/3D & 3A/3B/3C/3D specialist (replacing IC/G&T/Calc/Applic)

The strong/capable students are typically university bound, weak mid tier students may use their score for low requirement university courses or TAFE. Level 1 courses are generally for vocational students.

The real benefits are for mid tier and capable students that now have real options in selecting 2A-3A as a starting point in year 11. Students that sit higher end mathematics are now promised a more equitable scaling factor than was in place under the old system. The general opinion is also that the new courses are easier (in general) than the courses they replace. Only time will tell.

Sunday, November 30, 2008

Fight Club & media beat up


Here we go again. Another beat up by the media of a topic that will waste immense amounts of time within schools. Here's a forum post on the topic.

Amount of research done by media? Positive outcome for the community? None.

I feel for John Forrest SHS as they were just the poor school that was focused on this time. Morley kids in fight after school - hardly headline news..

I wonder if the genius that suggested keeping all students in school until the end of year 12 (especially those students too lazy to get a job) thought through the consequences properly. Couple this to increased scrutiny on suspension rates and we end up with the situation of dangerous students being kept within schools and encouraging/bullying students into situations like the 'Fight club' scenario. How long before we have metal detectors looking for knives, police required on school grounds, security guards patrolling a regular occurrence and schools feeling bullied with little support, with blame pointed squarely at schools? Oh that's right - it's already happening.

We (parents, media, community, government) need to support schools not finger point. We need solutions (exclusion of troubled students is a starting point) not blame. That means parents taking responsibility for their children, programmes that empower social workers with real consequences (such as removal of welfare payments), society taking responsibility for ill prepared parents (like removal of the baby bonus), support for academic students (whether aimed at low or high ability students with grading on progress rather than state based comparison - abolish the smartie chart and myschool!), and no in-school baby sitting programmes (students, not clients/customers).

Senior school is now effectively many things: pathway to university, pathway to vocational studies, home of unsure students and a dumping ground for kids that don't wish for a job nor to study further. There is no pressure on these latter students to perform away from home and little leverage to ensure that they enhance the school environment by contributing to the school. They are disenfranchised, lack enthusiasm, see little in their future beyond today. They need babysitting to prevent them from causing social ill. This is a social problem, not an academic one; worse still it only defers the problem by two years and has significant negative impact on schools. Children that cannot be directed into contributing students (despite all attempts) of the school community need to be directed out of school so that they either come back wanting to be a student or find a new pathway.

Teachers are not social workers, entertainers or babysitters, they are academics there to guide the learning of students and should be valued as such. Schooling is a privilege and a responsibility offered to all but should never be seen as a right. If a student brings a school into disrepute - they should be looking for a new school with fairly tight restrictions placed before re-entry into the school system. If we want better schools we need desperately to make schools academic centres of learning with spotless reputations, place clear boundaries around students, provide power to principals to act; and empower teachers effectively as tools of learning.

Class load next year

I don't know if I like or dislike my proposed timetable for 2009.

It looks like I will have 3 dot periods in a row next year (on a Thursday) which will make life a little difficult. The saving grace is that most of my class sizes are around 15 with taking the level three year 11 classes, modelling in year 12 and some of the alternate eduation kids. Only my year 10 class bodes to be larger than 17.

This time only 3 of my five classes are first timers rather than all five (I've taught year 10's and modelling before). The level 3 classes and the alternate education kids have the potential to draw a lot of time.

So far I'm one period down, which will make me a lightening rod for reliefs too. At least I'm not teaching out of area!

Upper 10's and exam preparation

My upper tens have begun revision for their exam. I've pushed them over the last week, getting them to complete twice as much work as my normal expectation per class as a prelude to expectations in year 11. Next I wanted them to experience the expectation of exams and model how to study in year 11. I set aside four days for them to revise and they did the following:

Day 1: Identification of material that could be in the exam
Day 2: Finding of resources (where in texts, portfolios) and identification of areas of weakness
Day 3: Preparation of notes / judging detail required via marks allocated
Day 4: Review and identification of material to study over weekend

Key findings
Students tend not to use contents pages in texts very well. Even when given words to find (solve, substitute, trigonometry) they can't find where in the text to examine. Students also need to consider that higher order questions are more likely to be in the exam therefore they should make sure they can answer questions at the end of exercises.

It was interesting to note levels of anxiety from the beginning (a couple of students with high levels) and the anxiety decreasing as they realised that they had mastered most of the content already. I look forward to next year when I can show them the progress made from year 9 to 10 by showing them their own year 9 exams and comparing it to their year 10 exam.

Students can now produce notes quite well and after a year of reinforcement they can see how to both use and benefit from them.

Students are starting to see that exam hints can be used to improve marks and how necessary it is to follow up and fix any areas of weakness.

Probability & statistics

I have running battle with my lower tens getting them started but found that a game of craypots generally helped. I've bought some foam cubes from Clark rubber (2 for $3.50) 125cm x 125cm x 125cm.

I've labelled the sides storm, storm, last, fine, fine, fine in red marker so that the students can see what the weather is and decide how to play their craypots to maximise the chance of profit.

It's been great to see students find the maximum possible value, the quickest way to get out of the game (eg. the riskiest route), see their mental mathematics in action and their ability to follow a process. It's a game that's easy to set up (it needs a worksheet and a teacher with dice) and one where the class highscore can be kept to be aimed for. Here's a copy of the online version. When I remember I'll bring home my worksheet for upload.

A fair few other dice games can be found here.

It's also a bit of fun to throw the foam cubes around the room near students not paying attention.


For the first time we reached 500 hits for the month and already have over 500 unique visitors this quarter - well up on last quarter and we still have a month to go. I attribute all this success to the rabbit banner and his joke.

Most popular topics this month were:
CAS Calculators (by far)
Performance pay


Monday, November 24, 2008


Sometimes teaching year 10's you get so caught up in your lesson you miss the bloody obvious.

Today we were looking at distance from origin, Perth to Meekatharra, Perth to Newman and so forth using trip counters and odometers. My students were finding it hard to find the distance between two locations (I forget the real distances so please excuse my made up ones)..

They could understand that the 259km and the 1600km indicated distances from Perth but could not understand how to determine the distance between Meekatharra and Newman. So I tried something similar but with smaller numbers.

When asked the distance between Mary's house and the shops, this time students were able to say 1km. I asked them how they did that and they gave me the answer 9+1=10. I asked if they could think of another way. A sea of blank looks from the new kids in the class. I think to myself OMG. No wonder these kids couldn't do the previous problem. I showed them that subtraction could work and they were able to complete the exercise finding distances between various destinations. By the end it was obvious that they could learn the pattern for solving the problems but did not have an understanding of the underlying maths - thus had forgotten the method by the next problem.

So I went a bit further and used my favourite diagnostic tool. I wrote the following on their page.


And asked them to add one to each number. Thankfully only one student couldn't do this. Then I write 10526 and 52679 at the end of the list and moved to each asking them to say the numbers quietly to me. This was not as successful. This was the trigger to split the class (again) and start these kids on a different programme of work.

The integration of low ability or underschooled students into the mainstream and removal of dedicated remedial classes has meant that many students are falling through the cracks. It is no wonder that some of these kids can be disruptive, disheartened and are having confidence issues. Students that cannot read numbers above 100, can't identify simple operations or understand place value have little chance in mainstream classes. It's enough to make you physically upset and reminds me why I originally intended teaching year 7 rather than senior secondary. The impact of intervention is greater at an earlier age than now.

I have many of these kids next year and have identified areas of focus, we're designing entry tests for new students and aim to improve numeracy with low performing students. It's frustrating the amount of time that it takes to find these issues and detect the underlying factors behind avoidant behaviour. Time will only tell how much success can be made of it.

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Building a better future for our kids

Getting kids to see opportunity rather than negativity is a key objective for 2009. As times get more difficult and unemployment rises, it is ever so important for kids to use their education for a new start in life and bring hope not only into their lives but into their families.

There are inspirations in every year group, the child with a terminal illness that strives for A's, the child that works every spare second to send money home to parents in Africa, the student that couldn't read two years before and now is able to contribute to mainstream classes.

Once an opportunity is presented to a student we get limited opportunities to demonstrate that effort leads to success. Any success with some kids needs to be celebrated, even staged to ensure that they get on the right road. If they are going to fail at a task (and they must learn how to cope with failure) they need to be supported, prepared and lead by the ear to see the achievement gained in failure. The learning of resilience is important beyond any skill.

We need to believe that they can do things. They have enough doubt in themselves, it does not need to be reinforced. Push them hard, see what they can do - it will always surprise you. Work to drive them to a better place - a good work ethic is an an achievement in itself.

The little darlings need to learn that boundaries are ok and are there to protect them. The world may not be fair or cheering them on, but generally it's not against them. All of us old folk fight for a better future for them. Learning the rules is a precursor to learning how to interact with others and the community - simply modelling polite language can save them from being instantly judged the minute they open their mouths.

Value systems now that religion is no longer impressed on kids are lacking. Without a value system kids lack a knowledge of right and wrong. In a world where everything moves so fast and knowledge is valued over experience, it is hard for them to see that there is wisdom in older folks. This is of course every generations fate - but with the rapid pace of the information age it is being exacerbated. They don't believe in our values (what would we know!) and lack a better system themselves.

Parents, rather than argue at the end of a hard day at work, just give in to an argument - kids do not understand no as an answer being used to the last word. At least until they do something that has a consequence that cannot be overlooked. When this happens, the gentle leading of them to their errors is a hard task that requires patience that I need to develop further.

We need to protect students that have good qualities from students that are developing them. Once an academic student is identified they need to be driven forward. Students developing good qualities need to have champions that mentor them through and help them through difficult times.

Thursday, November 20, 2008

Reflecting on streaming

We streamed the year ten mathematics classes this year. To our mind it was a success. Other learning areas had heterogeneous classes and had a lot of difficulties with behaviour management issues that streaming helped us avoid. We have our 3A, 2C, 2A and 1B classes for 2009 where many doubted whether they would occur.

The success that we have had has put some pressure on the lower school to stream classes to better cater to our more capable students. There has been some regrouping in lower school classes and teachers have reported improvements in the ability to teach mathematics topics.

The start of the Maths/English streaming debate started this week. Should we stream on mathematics results or English results? Being a mathematics teacher, to my mind it requires little consideration. English teachers on the whole don't want to stream - after all English is a subject that lends itself to the heterogeneous approach - an essay can be assessed on many levels. Mathematics on the other hand tends to be hierarchical with a concept impossible to learn without the building blocks before it. Therefore stream on mathematics.

It doesn't need to be that black and white either. Some clever timetabling was done for us and now Maths, English, SOSE, Science can use a good compromise. We have grouped all yr 10 students into two bands, an upper ability band (class A & B) and a lower ability band (class C&D). A&B's are timetabled at the same time and C&D's are timetabled at the same time.

So for the situation above, in the first example maths students in period 1 are streamed into four classes (movement of students between A&B or C&D can be done freely for each learning area). In period 2 for English, the upper ability group is mixed into two classes and the students from C&D are mixed.

The main issue occurs when students in the C are not streamed correctly (eg. maturity raises their output, students are not assessed correctly etc.) and need to be promoted to the upper ability block. This involves the changing of many classes. All four areas have to be flexible in the promotion of students and the consideration of who can move to the upper band. We try to avoid movement by setting entrance tests before the start of the year and re-examining students after four weeks at the start of term 1. New students are to sit the tests before entering an ability block. The main advantage is the reduction of the level of teaching diversity required - there is less gap between the top and bottom student in each class.

It is not perfect as students may not settle into classes as well as they constantly encounter different student configurations (as typically happens with options classes).

Furthermore, it would be interesting to know if our success would have been the same if students had been streamed in all classes. Maybe the novelty of the streaming process is a factor in the success itself.

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

The undeserved power of gossip in the staffroom

Gossip is one of those things that is rife in most staff rooms. It always makes me laugh how people assume something is true just because they heard it from someone or multiple people - especially from those in the know (wink... wink...).

I hate gossip. Most of the time it creates cliques where being in the know becomes an important part of the job and increases your status. The easiest way I've found to diffuse the power of gossip is to disseminate absolutely ridiculous gossip to all and sundry. It is hilarious to hear your own make believe come back as fact.

The most irritating type of gossip is the talk about such and such. Her clothes.. his hair.. his attitude to students... the voice.. what the students think.. what such and such said. Everyone has their own idea about the perfect teacher. A diverse culture is the best thing for students.. creating teachers in thy own image is not only short sighted but is detrimental to a school.. Type A personalities take note!

Discrediting gossip has three key effects.. firstly no-one believes any gossip that you have and stops commenting or asking your opinion on things that have little relevance to you.. secondly it makes people think twice before they believe any gossip going around.. and finally by laughing at how gullible people are with gossip, it reduces the ability of those "in the know" from influencing decisions by creating a ground swell of support via the silent network - especially prior to unpopular concepts being implemented or popular concepts being discontinued.

Avoiding staffroom gossip is usually quite simple - avoid the staffroom during lunchtime gossip sessions as much as possible and be known as a little preoccupied with your own learning area. Have interests outside of school to talk about. Most of the time gossip just creates angst, undue tension between staff members, can blow up otherwise controllable situations, creates conflict and is generally just unnecessary for the job.

Time is needed to develop, implement, analyse, continue or discontinue processes within an organisation. Anything that can undermine legitimate organisational processes and structures should be discouraged. Gossip as an undermining influence is number one on my hit list to be stopped wherever possible.

Monday, November 17, 2008

Idiot of the year award (IOTY)

Chris Sarra you are my idiot of the year. You are a candidate for idiot of the century.

Calling those unfortunate souls that get country postings "White Trash" for their efforts in bringing education to the outback is nearly as bad as the Australian publishing this sensationalist tripe.

The article is here.

It takes a special sort of person to go to the outback and teach. Even in hard to teach metropolitan schools it can be difficult. At my school there are at least two people that put their careers aside to teach students like we were, and hopefully we make a difference.

I would suggest that if Chris Sarra feels so strongly about how indigenous students are being poorly treated he should get out there and encourage aboriginal students to become teachers in the outback.

"If I'm an incompetent principal of an Aboriginal school, lacking in courage to challenge parents about why their children are not attending school, it doesn't matter. Aborigines get the blame."

Teachers and schools cannot control whether students come to school. They can encourage students, work with elders in the community and implement government programs. If Chris is seeking to alienate all of us trying our best to help these kids, involved with tutoring and mentoring, policing and medical services, he has succeeded. If Chris thinks making schools into community policemen, reporting who should and shouldn't get welfare, I would suggest that he is attributing the wrong role to the wrong organisation. To do this would increasingly make schools a negative influence in family life rather than an enabling one. The whole ethos of schools is to advise and empower parents and students, not enforce community will onto the unwilling.

"They should tell the parents, 'If this goes on, I can refer you to the authorities because you're in breach of the Education Act. "

Chris clearly has a strange view on the ability of truant officers and community police. My understanding of what the authorities are empowered to do is check that students are OK and encourage parents to return students to school.

If a community does not value education and resists attempts to engage with education, they will become second class citizens - some elders understand this and drive their communities - schools can help but cannot be the driver.

"Dr Sarra says his success was due to challenging students to be strong, smart and act like 'Aborigines' instead of delinquents."

I feel for Chris in some little way as he has been successful in one community, I think his mistake is attributing his success to schooling rather than his ability to act as a community leader - by my reading of the article it was by encouraging students to be aboriginal and proud. It would be great to see this tempered with Australian and proud too. Connection with the community needs to become an increasing goal - with both sides reaching out to make our nation proud.

Thursday, November 13, 2008

Entrance exam

Having an entrance exam or pre-test for new students creates an opportunity to discover a lot about a new student. In low socio-economic schools it is very common to have transient students that pop in and out of schools often result in being ejected due to behavioural issues. I am told this is a requirement in other states, but not so in WA.

Transient students typically have little in the way of past reporting and schools can be cagey or lack solid information (especially if it is a local school referring them) about their ability and attitude to schooling. The need to immediately settle these kids into class and give them age and skill appropriate work is essential to establish good working routines and break the cycle. If they don't settle quickly they can ruin a carefully constructed class that is working and reduce it to behavioural problems.

The exam we wrote for year 9 (mentioned here), could be used as an entry test for these kids. It would be an indicator of attitude and ability. As it is two hours we could watch their progress through the test and monitor their attitude to work. The results of the test would give an indication of their skill level. This would remove some of the guesswork and misleading information that can sometimes be put forward by parents that overestimate the skill level of their student. It would also be fair - as it is aimed to be one of the main criteria we use for the initial streaming in year 10 being an exam for completed year 9 coursework. It would also note any key deficiencies that need attention.

As the exam is easy to mark, it could be done by the year coordinator and be free of teacher and parental bias.

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Practical application of effective leadership

Today we wrote the test to help us stream the year 9's into year 10 classes for next year effectively. We decided on two one hour exams testing number facts & space/Measurement then Algebra and problem solving.

If I was to write the two exams, I'd have to sit with the outcomes, read half a dozen books to find questions that adequately test the outcomes, do the test, record how long it would take me, estimate how long it will take students, re-evaluate the order of the questions, write a marking key, ensure that the test adequately covers the material originally intended and then two days has passed with little sleep.


Our curriculum leader wrote the exam on a bit of paper off the top of his head, completed the answer key, allocated marks, I typed it up and it was done in two hours. Looking at it, it is far better than what I could have done alone. I worry that the difficulty level is a little high but I am happy to see what happens. If the students underachieve it will be easier to show their progress by the end of year 10 next year.

Experience always tells. There is no doubt, when writing the exam, in the instant between brain and hand, he had done all the things that I would have had to do; and even if I had written the exam knowing that our curriculum leader would look over it and make suggestions is a relief and takes away some of the pressure. Having someone you respect looking over things can make the difference between a new idea being accepted or rejected out of hand. That level of support and challenge is so necessary in your early years.

It is more than just experience though.

We have come up with a heap of hair brained schemes that you could see he doubted would be effective, but rather than dismissing them out of hand, he let us try. Sure enough, some of them had limited effect, but others have helped us understand the students better (like morning classes), others helped organise classes more efficiently (using more common assessment tasks and assessment schedules), others aim to assist students next year (like regrouping the 10's into their COS classes in term 4), helping us by bailing us out of duty when we have over committed (and need extra time to spend with students) and support our school wide initiatives (like a marks book for all classes or detailed programmes for junior school).

Earlier in the year we had moderation and intervention was needed to make sure the material we were presenting was demonstrative of our performance. The material I had prepared was inadequate and he suggested a number of things we had to do with presenting assessment prior to moderation, fixed the issues and our course was judged spot on.

Experienced staff commonly know who to talk to, what procedure is required, how long something will take for approval and what shortcuts are possible. They can save embarrassment from suggesting an idea that has been tried and failed or an idea that is unsuitable for a number of unthought of reasons.

Experienced staff tend to know what resources work and can lay their hands on them - in maths this is especially true with logic puzzle/investigation/problem solving activities that are hard to source.

Our curriculum leader likes to come into my room and takes great pleasure in finding mistakes with my board work (not one of my favourite habits) - but... I'd rather someone that had a clue than someone that didn't care enough to check that the senior school teachers are doing the right thing.

So to sum it up.. good leaders have superior content sequencing & resource knowledge (expert power), be willing to intervene where required and advocate to senior management for junior staff (management expertise), have respect of fellow staff (be charismatic), understand process (administrative expertise) and encourage risk taking (be entrepreneurial).

Sunday, November 9, 2008

Negotiation replacing leadership

When I was at my old school and raised that I thought that some issue was unfair, I was told to negotiate my way out of it with other teachers. I was interested in this concept as in the workforce, if you were told to do something it wasn't a case for negotiation, you just did the job. You relied on the person in management knowing what they were doing and just did the job.

In teaching it's a bit like a flea market. What you are told to do is the first offer. Then you say what you would like to do. Then you find someone who wants what you have been offered and perhaps do a deal to make it happen. A lot of back scratching and deal making commonly hides an old boys network where everyone is looked after with a bit of a wink.

Where this started I have no idea, but it doesn't make it easy for those that genuinely want to make things happen. For someone to lead, others must be inspired or at least willing to follow. Negotiation just slows things down. The person leading needs to know what they are doing and those confident have to follow and preferably want to follow and those dragging their feet or passively resisting have to know there are consequences for such action.

Otherwise, where is the management? Where is the leadership?

To get around convoluted management styles I look for projects that can be managed by only those with a particular skill base and try to make it happen. Design a course of work, have before school classes, assist with after school tutoring, examine calculator usage, run a summer school, realign student groups, create my blog, assist with student events, organise resources, design reporting and assessment schemas. Ideas like this don't need committees and can be a genuine contribution to school results.

The bane of leadership is the committee. A committee is a way of distributing work to many that meet infrequently, rarely get anything done and no-one is to blame if everything fails. If someone does get something done it is usually because the group is overwhelmed by a dominant personality who does all the work (or delegates effectively with the fear of authority) and unfairly has to share the credit because some plod thinks they contributed an idea to the process.

When I'm on a committee, I rely on the principle, don't suggest an idea unless you are willing to do it. And if you suggest something be aware that unless someone else says they can do it better or the group thinks it is a negative idea, you will be doing it. If you don't contribute, you will be removed from the committee. Easy.. instant effective committees. I have never survived long as chairman and even more rarely get asked onto a committee. Which suits me fine :-)

The idea that a participant on a committee is there to get support for senior teacher status rather than a genuine interest in the committee makes a mockery of the process. Jumping through hoops is not the path to progress. Just poorly crafted committees.

Developing problem solving, reading and comprehension skills

My little challenging group of year 10's can be quite difficult to engage at times. A real issue with their maths is getting them to read the question effectively. Completely out of character, they have loved exercises in the book Logic Mysteries by Jane Molnar. Although it misleadingly states grade 3-5 on the cover, the year 10 students have loved the idea of reading these problems and solving them. When I first introduced it, I abandoned the rest of my normal planned lesson as I had not seen these students this enthused and engaged since the algebra topic.

Each mystery has a story and is solved by eradicating options that do not exist. A grid is set up to record the findings as they go through the mystery.

Many great mathematical concepts can be investigated. For instance complementary events become obvious, if she has a bird - all the options in the bird column that are boys can be eradicated. Inequalities can be investigated through clues like Jane's age is less than Mary's. Sets can be investigated through concepts like Mary's item fits in a school bag... and so on..

The main thing is that it requires the students to read the clues that are not necessarily in order, requiring reading and re-reading until they are all done.

A similar book Quizzles or More Quizzles by Wayne Williams has proven very successful with my upper class of year tens. These logic puzzles are multi dimensional and can be quite difficult so be warned!

For these to be successful I invited students to attempt them themselves for 5 minutes then modelled how to complete a problem. Then the following day I gave another problem at the start of class.

Either way, improving comprehension and reading ability is more and more important in mathematics (the temptation to enter into a diatribe as to why we need to teach English in maths here is near on irresistible - I shall try though!). These three books have been some of the more enjoyable methods of developing literacy skills thus far.

Ethical reasoning and streaming

Streaming is a difficult topic as it raises a number of questions regarding student capture, teacher judgement, assessment, and social justice.

Student capture for me is the most critical aspect of a classroom. Capturing a student's interest is a perpetual task, a combination of selling your subject and moving fast enough to keep their interest, yet slowly enough to allow them to fully grasp a subject. For some it can be done through connections with the teacher's personality, others through mathematics success, others through contribution to the class and others by connections with peers. If you can capture a student and get them to consistently have a positive attitude towards your subject then this is the first criteria met for a student to be placed into a difficult mathematics class. Streaming captured students into a class can greatly assist in improving possibility for success.

Teacher judgement is the next criteria. Does the student have the intellectual horsepower to complete the work? No amount of mathematics tutoring will assist a student that has extreme difficulty in reading a question, has too many holes in their skill base or takes too long to understand a new skill. A teacher needs to be able to identify that bit of extra practice that will move the student from being able to use a skill when directed, to be able to apply a skill undirected, to be able to identify the right skill from a range of available skills. It is possible that having to continuously assist a student on a continuous basis will destroy the flow of a class and disadvantage all within it especially in upper range classes.

Assessment is the next criteria. Assessment supports teacher judgement not the other way around. To stream purely on assessment is a recipe for disaster. This is especially true for students riding the end of their ability curve and coasting or loafing. These students, when they hit the wall and finally need to study can be hurt, confused and looking for those to blame for their lack of performance. If these students have not been properly coached before the 'big drop' in results, they can drop morale in a class at a rapid rate. Sometimes (especially in this case or the case where students are having external difficulties) it is best to ignore assessment and use the first two criteria to stream students.

Social justice is the final criteria and it has to be very carefully applied. An injudicious use of social justice to students when streaming will produce weak streams and deprecate the benefits of streaming. Just because a student has a legitimate reason for underperforming does not mean that in time a student will perform. Some say that streaming a class is a social justice issue in itself but watching students being unable to complete work that the rest of the class is working on and suffering self esteem issues or dumbing a class down to the lowest common denominator is not a solution to my mind.

The hardest part of establishing a stream is that it is not an exact science. A student performing at an optimum level with one teacher may not perform at all with another (this is especially true with boys). When creating a stream (especially in small class sizes) team dynamics play a large part - if you can create a team of peers and the teacher anything is possible. It's why I think traditionally the upper classes have been sought after - despite requiring the most skill to make work - they are the ones where there has been most flexibility in construction.

Saturday, November 8, 2008

If that's culture.. you can have it.

Today I sat through Aida. Normally I can handle a little live Opera. I'm sorry, act three of Aida should be classified as grade A torture. Forty minutes to say the army is over there, get caught for treason and be sentenced to being buried alive. Three hours for the whole thing. It felt like forty years.

Want to get someone to talk? Need to know where that bomb has been hidden? Easy peasy.. Stick them in front of that dull as dishwater, repetitive, boring Verde nightmare. By the end of it they would be trying to poke their own eyes out and have their arm buried to the elbows in both ears.

I'd rather eat my own leg off than see it again.

Wednesday, November 5, 2008

Teacher turnover, teamwork and classes for 2009

The generation of school spirit comes from the school, focuses through teachers and into students. Harmony between teachers is a key component to the generation of that aura of success in a school.

Part of this is ensuring that there is balance between the needs of students and the needs of teachers. At this time of year tension arises between staff regarding the classes teachers would like to teach to further their careers and what is in the best interests of students. What is in the best interest of students is not always the best option. This takes some courage to say, as it has always been my position that students come first - but I think it is naive to think this is always the case.

In the real world, knowledge management issues of a revolving staff are well documented. When staff leave it does not only cost in terms of vetting and rehiring staff but also in the content knowledge loss, training investment and organisational understanding that is only gained through experience with customers.

Teaching is no different. Reduce turnover and the school benefits. An organisation that considers the needs of staff to progress successfully in their careers is an organisation that cares for its staff. To do this staff members needs to have their progress clearly illustrated and documented.

In mathematics, this means careful consideration of the new level 3 MAT and MAS courses. If there are a number of teachers vying for these classes it may be a number of years before teachers are given access to them. Being offered these classes (or knowing that a course has your name on it two years hence) can be a clear motivating factor in staying with the school and fully embracing PD opportunities until that time.

Conversely not being offered these courses or seeing the courses offered to those 'less worthy' can be a demotivational factor. Similarly being continuously asked to take lower school or low ability senior school classes can be disheartening for those seeking to enhance their skill base or for those seeking rapid promotion.

This ties very close to timetabling as many promotional opportunities rely on staff having access to senior school classes. Timetabling can often make or break the way a teacher sees their classes. Teaching out of area, sharing classes with other teachers, large class sizes, behaviourally 'difficult' classes can all be contributors to negative staff morale.

For a maths team to be successful they have to work as a team, support each other and find new and innovative solutions to student behavioural, content delivery and motivational issues. When class distribution for the following year is being considered, it means that careful thought has to be made as to what will satisfy the majority of the team, motivate members and ultimately prevent turnover.

Union president and lack of representative integrity

Anne Gisborne, president of the SSTUWA, is again out whoring the latest EBA attempt. Her actions are disgraceful.

A person in a representative capacity should not have made this comment in the media:

"Teachers union president Anne Gisborne admitted its members were running out of reasons to end the long-running pay dispute with the Government after the in-principle pay agreement."

Who is she to decide what her members should think? That is why members have a vote. She has been elected to represent members views even when member views are not her own (the last vote proved that members do not share her voice and thus she should keep it reserved until she again has member support). If she does cannot represent members and put her own views aside when it disagrees with members then she should step down.

It doesn't take blind Freddy to see that this union faces extinction if it continues to not heed the mandate given by its own State council and continue to act irresponsibly towards its members. The acts of the genuine few believers will not be enough to stem the tide of those leaving the union. Unfortunately the outcome will be no true public school system (other than a safety net), pay per use education and further movement to a multiple class society.

Monday, November 3, 2008

EBA4 Teacher pay rise and the new offer

Here is a link to the DET summary of EBA4

General opinion seems to be to accept the offer which is around 20% over three years (including the 6% we already have) with the next pay increase scheduled for October 09. No back pay to the last agreement. No 15 hrs unpaid overtime (eg. compulsory PD).

I can't say that I am excited - but will be glad when I can focus on teaching and all the fuss about wages and conditions stops.

I suppose I think back to the original questions posed at the start of the campaign.
  • Has the new EBA created a profession with salary and conditions that will attract new teachers? No.
  • Does the new EBA create conditions that will keep existing teachers within the system? No.
  • Has the new EBA energised teachers within classrooms by making a statement that they are a valued part of the community? No.
  • Should we fight further? No. In an economic downturn we should lick our wounds and stand aside.

To my mind the whole EBA process has been a lost opportunity, but now is not the time to resume this fight, it is a time to regroup, accept the small gains and prepare as one (DET, teachers, union, community, media, government) to create a feeling that education is the most critical element of our society.

When we better appreciate, evaluate and express publicly the positive contribution education makes to the community, then and only then will large increases to teaching budgets and salaries be justified.

Changing role of senior school

Senior school, years 10,11,12 have traditionally been the home of the most experienced teachers. These teachers generally have a vast amount of experience that is tapped from time to time by other teachers when need arises, either in behaviour management, content knowledge and generally are aware of how things work, what has been tried before and how to get things done. They have the experience to guide our students through to TEE, university entry or into VET pathways where necessary.

Now I say this as an observer (as I am neither experienced, nor the most capable in senior school). I have no ambitions for a HoD role and actively promote the idea that the HoD should teach the most capable class and other senior school teachers should do an apprenticeship of sorts with mid range classes to hone technique and pedagogy first. ... and I enjoy classroom teaching too much to get involved with the admin required to do the job properly.

Somewhere along the line I think we have lost track of what senior school teachers bring to the school. We have lost our heads of department in Mathematics/English/SoSE/Science to other areas such as literacy experts and careers guidance, L3 adminstrative roles. Responsibility now for the performance of learning areas has fallen to those incapable of measuring success or failure as they may not have ever taught the subject.

An issue that is currently rising is the lack of time to complete yr 12 COS in time for the TEE exams. With 1 term lost to the exam process, it leaves only 16 weeks per semester to complete the course. A possible way to increase the amount of teaching time for COS is to use term 4 year 10 to start the COS process and to start the year 12 course a term early.

Staffing of this is a real issue because if a unit starts in term four, few teachers are willing to take on an overloaded teaching schedule to make this happen. At this time of year the temptation arises to utilise senior school staff to fulfil this role as in many cases they will be teaching these students in the following years anyway.

I think we need to resist this happening especially for our HoD's. If our best and most capable are not given unallocated time to identify and remedy issues within learning areas it is only likely that over time things will get worse. The time that they put into improving staff ability and student output is clearly underestimated and is not being adequately nurtured. It would be good to see the complete opposite occur and HoD's given the time, recognition, responsibility and pay to make things happen.

Sunday, November 2, 2008

Class size & the concept of 'Intervention Time'

I have heard many times that reduced class size is not a factor in learning or that it has minimal effect. Reduced class sizes is not the panacea to improved student learning but it is a handy tool when used correctly. To have an early intervention strategy there must be adequate class time for intervention.

If you have a high performing class of motivated students (with 3 levels between the top and bottom performing students), class sizes of around thirty in year ten can be managed. You would need to use a fair amount of skill to keep them motivated as after instruction and settling time (say 30 mins per class, two blocks of instruction, h/w and pack up) it would be hard to get to every student every class to identify issues, correct them (say 1 minute of intervention time per student per class) and maintain their learning inertia. You would more reliant on picking up issues during the homework, quiz, revision, assessment and corrections teaching cycle and complete more marking out of class.

In a mid performing class (with four levels between the top and bottom performing students) with around 20 students and 20 minutes of instruction and settling time you could get to each student twice (eg. average of 2 mins of intervention time per lesson). This seems feasible.

If you have a low performing student group in mathematics (with five levels between the top and bottom performing students), I would say that a class of 30 is lunacy (there are usually valid and disparate reasons why students are this far behind) and would send the best teachers barmy. Under normal circumstances in these types of classes there are not enough corners in the room to separate disruptive students. Each student in a class of that type requires constant attention to fully enjoy and appreciate mathematics. For example in my class, one student required behavioural attention once every 3 minutes (I timed him), each time requiring further attention to settle him. In a class of thirty that would make teaching nigh near impossible. For a class of this type it is preferable to have intervention time around 3-4 minutes per student, limiting class sizes to 13-16 students. This size of class would also promote more collaborative work, especially if other teachers are willing to assist during their DOTT or if a T/A is available.

In practice each student does not need (or get) an individual minute of your time and is normally able to do their work without individual intervention through the teacher identifying classwide issues and modifying instructional techniques (eg. more modelling), by using peer assistance, having effective instructional notes, by increasing participation in after class discussion or by bringing groups of students back to the board. What the intervention time model does is provide a benchmark of performance and can help identify structural issues vs teaching issues with classes that are clearly not working.

Using a model of this nature we could measure the learning capacity of student groups (by creating class sizes and monitoring teaching/intervention/disruption time) and the approximate class sizes required to teach them optimally. This has the potential to greatly assist in designing and justifying appropriate class sizes for our students.

Thursday, October 30, 2008

Measuring Teacher Performance

I stumbled upon this article from 1999 stating clearly issues raised by teachers regarding student performance in primary and secondary schools. It is just as relevant today as it was then. This shows a number of areas of difficulty measuring teacher performance. I have highlighted some of the areas of student performance impacted by teachers. Many carry through to high school from primary.

I grouped the results into behavioural (primarily learned behaviours brought to the classroom), genetics, environmental (factors with limited control by the teacher), structural (constraints imposed on a classroom) and societal factors to isolate factors solely controlled by teachers within the classroom. Pedagogy(teaching methods), content knowledge are the two major factors teachers contributing to teaching students.

  • students who are not doing well tend to give up, refuse to try, and this makes the problem worse - this behaviour gets worse as they get older and they start to compare their work with those of other students (behavioural)
  • high achieving students can taunt low achievers and this makes the problems worse
    students with psychological problems (eg, trauma experienced in the home) have trouble learning (behavioural)
  • sometimes teachers can’t work out why students can’t learn - it can be the problem of the teacher who hasn’t worked out how to engage students (getting inside the walnut) (pedagogy)
  • parents refuse to have their children placed in classes for students who have intellectual disabilities (structural)
  • students lack academic ability (genetics/environmental)
  • teachers don’t explain concepts clearly (pedagogy/content knowledge)
  • parents indulge their children so they won’t pay attention in class (societal)
  • parents don’t take an interest in children’s school work (societal)
  • students are transient and so miss a lot of school (societal)
  • it’s more difficult these days to get students placed in classes for students with intellectual disabilities there are children with attention deficit disorder who have difficulty concentrating in class (structural)


  • students haven’t been well taught in earlier years at school (historical)
  • students don’t value school work (behavioural/societal)
  • parents don’t value their children’s school work (societal)
  • students lack ability (genetics/environmental)
  • the system allows students to progress through grades without passing subjects (structural)
  • maturational level - students mature at different rates - they may not be able to grasp concepts now but they could in a couple of years’ time (genetic/environmental)
  • poor teaching (pedagogy/content knowledge)
  • teachers blame the students for poor performance when it’s the teachers’ fault (pedagogy)
  • students have psychological problems because of unhappy home lives (environmental)
  • teachers don’t have a good mathematics background (pedagogy/content knowledge/structural)
  • students’ poor behaviour in class means they don’t pay attention to the work - discipline problems in schools are on the rise - it’s part of wider societal problems (behavioural/structural/societal)
  • students lack self discipline - they’re not prepared to work (behavioural)

It is clear to see that student performance is a poor measure of teaching ability as many other factors exist to influence this criteria. To blame teachers for poor performance of students based purely on teacher pedagogy (teaching methods) or lack of knowledge of content ignores a host of other possible reasons.

Creating an 'unAustralian' education system

An article in the Australian discusses the challenge of improving schooling in Australia. Another article with opinion and without supporting facts to back them up. What has happened to our media? Why can they not develop a position and then report with supporting or refuting evidence!

The main points were:
  1. Development of a national curriculum (supported).
  2. Minimising or even abandoning plans for national testing programs (supported).
  3. Funding private and public schools on the same basis (?).
  4. Auditing the intellectual capital -- that is, teacher quality -- in all schools (?).
  5. Greater autonomy for schools and principals (?).
  6. Creating a federation of schools, in line with the British model (?).
  7. Refurbishing or replacing most school buildings constructed in the 20th century (supported).
  8. Increasing the business sector's involvement in education, including private funding of schools through foundations and trusts (supported with reservations).
Part three: By doing this we are accepting that we will have a two+ tier society. Those that can afford private schooling and those that can't. Public schools cannot compete with schools that have equal funding with private schools and are supplemented through school fees. Those students that cannot pay fees in private schools will be disadvantaged (students in private schools schools already have the advantage of rapid exit of undesirable students, this is their USP). Public schooling should be given more of the public purse than private schools. Our disadvantaged kids need our support. How is further disadvantaging them going to prepare them to compete equally in the workforce - it just creates an underclass. The funding ethos put forward is grossly capitalist and American. It is decidedly unAustralian.

Part four: Sure, let's audit teachers, how and who shall do it? What makes a good teacher? What happens if a teacher fails the audit? How do we re-educate them? Who plans and pays for the implementation? Who is to blame for poorly performing students - the teacher, past teachers? It's nonsense.

Part five: Where is the research that greater autonomy for schools leads to better student outcomes? The idea is counter intuitive. Surely re-inventing administration currently centralised cannot be cheaper, as flexible to change or as easily monitored than decentralised at a school level. All decentralisation does is decentralise blame for a system that isn't working very efficiently. Today is a time of centralisation as information technology closes the efficiency gains once found through decentralisation. Analysis and change coordinated at one location is far more efficient than directing responsibility to islands of learning.

Part six: I have no idea yet what this idea is of federated schools in the UK but I haven't heard the UK system as a model system for eons. I must investigate this further.

Passion, student behaviour and being fiery

One of the issues in classes today that stems from the home is that students have trouble accepting that a teacher has authority in the classroom. At home they argue with parents in a very democratic fashion. Students believe (wholeheartedly) that they have a right of reply to any misconception that they face.

I must admit this gets me fired up especially in my 'A' class. Any student willing to take responsibility for the care, nurture, learning needs and welfare of thirty students, get a degree as a minimum requirement for teaching can have my job if they can prove they would do it better. Until they do this, if I ask a student to be quiet or stand in the hall, see the team leader, copy off the board or attempt a question they may believe they can't do, I expect them to attempt to follow my expectation.

They will fail sometimes, and this is ok. This does not give them a right to argue and waste teaching time. It should prompt some introspection as to why they didn't understand how to do it and hopefully seek assistance from friends, pay more attention when solutions are put on the board or seek assistance at an opportune moment during class or after class. Maybe it would be a good idea to get them to journal why they have had such trouble understanding a concept and identify ways they could better understand a topic. Bringing the correct materials to class (eg. CAS calculators, pens, paper, texts), paying attention during instruction, fostering friendships with those that do understand, reading their notes (and keeping them in a place they can be used) - attending school regularly (my favourite) and catching up after sickness may be a good start.

These students do not have a right to insist on help at a time that suits them. To use a claim for help to justify poor or avoidant behaviour is not acceptable. I would love to be able to provide just-in-time intervention to every student all of the time. In a class of thirty it just is not possible. The belief that getting instant help is a right is infuriating and I don't know where it is being fostered. Maybe I should enquire into how many are only children (and thus do not have to compete for attention) and also examine my own methods of helping during practice time (maybe I am a contributer to the problem!).

When instructed on where their actions are errant I expect nothing less than silence especially with those talking during teaching time - this is done in the hall outside my room. Try my patience and half the school hears. It's fun watching them open their mouth and then hear them "but you won't let me talk to explain". If you talk during my teaching time and I have to stop the only thing I wish to hear is I'm sorry and then see an end to that behavior. Woebetide the student that interupts me again. My other students have the right to learn and it must be protected.

There must be a line between teacher expectation and student behaviour. There must be a consequence if this is crossed. A lecture, for many of my kids is enough to get the message. If they get the message, no further consequence. If it continues -they start the path to BMIS.

The argumentative nature of students at correct times needs to be fostered (we don't want meek students) - but it must be cultivated with manners and knowledge that there is a time and place to discuss the finer points of an issue. I always offer time after class for extra assistance and am happy to discuss any issues or problems from a class at this time. Funnily enough rarely is this offer taken up by these students during lunch or their own time.

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Creating inspirational students

Students aren't born inspirational. They're born rather podgy blobs that whinge a lot... Some never change...

This week I spent a bit of time reminding my year 10's that they are inspirational. Lower school students look to them for cues on how to behave, on determining what is important and setting the tone within the school. If they want a happy school - be happy. If they want a school with a million rules - do stupid things. If they want a school based on success of students, show the lower years that our school can perform at a high level.

For this I think it is important that we create opportunities for them to be successful and protect those that foster these activities. It might be taking an interest in a student that is doing an afterschool ESL class, or not getting grumpy with the dance teacher that is taking students out of class for a recital, being supportive of the physical education staff and their events, supporting SOSE excursions by providing extra supervisor bodies or helping out with relief classes.

I think it also means looking for information that might help inspire kids. I recently found two books by the actress that played Winnie on the Wonder Years (Kevin's girlfriend for those of you ancient enough to remember). One is called 'Math doesn't suck' and the other is 'Kiss my Math'. The books themselves may be just the thing to get a student going and get them to believe that you care about how they think. The maths is a bit dodgy in places ('Highest common factor' becomes 'greatest crush factor') but it has a go at making maths pop culture ready and that's a good thing.

Another bit of success I've had is to let them into my life a little. Last class we created tally tables on the best baby name that we had selected. Next time I'll have a silent poll as it was a case of many just following the leader. Maybe this is a discussion in itself. We've also used my history to investigate stocks, examine salary ranges and evaluate priorities on what is important in life.

Another opportunity has been with my guitar. I am worse than hopeless, but the kids see that I am still learning well beyond school.

Lastly whenever a leadership event occurs I draw their attention to it and suggest that they pay heed to things done well or poorly as they will soon be in that position. If they can learn good leadership habits now, they will be in better stead going forward.

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Year 12 leaving ceremony

It was interesting to watch the leaving ceremony for the year 12's. It gives you a lot to think about for times where you are helping set up such an event and things that kids really need to do to make these events successful.

Firstly all kids need to feel included in the ceremony - not just the popular kids. Photo montages need to include everyone, memorable events need to cover the full spectrum of students academic, sporting, VET; dominant personalities need to celebrate and value the achievements of all, not just the popular few.

Perhaps we need to consider how we could create photo libraries for all years, mini yearbooks documenting events as they occur as part of the various handshaking ceremonies throughout the year.

There was a clear lack of thanks from the current year group. There was a brief thanks to all our teachers and then a celebration of all the events where misbehaviour had occurred and had perhaps caused embarrassment to students, the school or disrupted classes. This left a sour taste in the mouths of the senior teachers as a lot of effort had gone into getting this cohort over the line. Many have decided to give the graduation ceremony and dinner a miss. Maybe this is an indication that we need to focus on those that appreciate our efforts and that the efforts at 'inclusive' education have gone too far. Maybe students beliefs are right and we are not doing enough! I don't know but somehow I doubt that our efforts are best spent on students that perform at a very low level (even with all the help in the world) and take away time from students that could really use extra help. There needs to be further authority given to schools to move students that will not respond to learning opportunities to free up time for those ready. Perhaps it is just my utilitarian tendencies showing through.

When all graduate there is a clear diminishing of value placed on secondary graduation. With graduation rates of 80-100% and all students needing to continue school to year 12, graduation for many has limited worth. Many leave with little more knowledge than they had at year 10. It has diminished the achievements of those attempting TEE courses, there is little recognition of the difference in effort required. I feel for those that attempt TEE courses and get fails on their certificates due to external circumstance instead of taking the easy option and doing VET or alternate education courses.

Another clear transformation is the knowledge that these kids will probably communicate with their cohort for some time unlike any cohort from my time. The advent of Facebook and mySpace will mean that they can have instant communication with their cohort and an instant network to resolve issues and celebrate success. I don't know if this is a good thing as coming of age was about new times and new people, the removal of negative reinforcers and a new beginning.

The lack of concern of students for their TEE exams and the haphazard attitude to study borne through portfolio entry and low TEE scores is definitely to their detriment. The baptism of fire is now more dip in a warm pool. These students have managed to leave school without any anxiety of security and self worth - how will I support myself, what occupation can I do, how will I be worthy of my life partner, how will I be a valid contributor to society? Resilience is something borne of experience and these students lack any real concept of the difficulty of gaining true independence.

Casio Classpad 330, Finding the mean and missing values

I posed the following question to my year 10's in order to continue our learning of the new calculator. It is an example of solving a problem where the mean is known but a value in the sample is not.

"Q: A class had 5 students. Student results in the last test was {50,56,64,72,81}. Isabella joined the class and the new mean became 68. Did Isabella score higher than the old mean and what was her score?"
H: If the mean of {50,56,64,72,81} is less than 68 then Isabella has scored higher as a higher score by Isabella will raise the mean. Since we know the new mean (68) we can work out Isabella's score by working backwards.
Set up a working pane with a main application and a list editor. Title a column 'list1'. Add the 5 student results to the list editor.

Click in the main application and type mean(list1) using the soft keyboard. Hit the blue exe button. The answer is 64.6 .
A: The old mean 64.6 is less than 68 therefore Isabella has scored higher.

To find Isabella's score click in the list editor and tap the next empty cell in list1. Press the x button. Click in the main application pane on the line that says mean(list1). Press the blue exe button.

This will return a sum to work out the mean of the list for values of and value of x i.e. (x+323)/6.

As we know the new mean alter the first line to read mean(list1)=68. Highlight the solution sum and tap Edit in the menu bar and then Copy. Paste the sum on the next line in the main application pane. Highlight the sum, tap Interactive on the menu bar, then tap Advanced on the sub menu and then tap solve. Tap ok at the base of the dialog box. The answer is x=85.
A: Isabella's test score was 85.

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